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Research Reports

Here you can download the reports of the Fogra research projects. The final reports are available as long versions. The short versions summarize the most important points. The download is free for members. Non-members can order the research reports in the shop.

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Your challenges – our topics

The selection of our research topics is discussed in the Technical Committees: industry experts meet Fogra scientists to offer current projects the benefits of industry experience and to discuss new research projects.

The 2021 research programme features all current and planned projects and we hope that the results of our research will also solve your challenges!

research programme

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The research reports of the last 10 years are available for direct download. My tip: Use the search function in the header to quickly find the required report.

 

The reports from previous years are available on request, please simply refer to the project tile and/or number.

The latest reports

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
13.003 - Process standardisation for ECG printing Within the scope of this research project, investigations were carried out and tools were created to support professional colour communication, data preparation, data exchange and colour characterisation in multicolour printing (ECG, Expanded Colour Gamut). short version 05.08.2021 pdf 3 MB
12.017 - Graphic 3D printing – colour accurate softproof for 3D objects produced in Polyjet and Multijet fusion processes In this project, the practical basics for the physically correct on-screen visualisation of 3D-printed objects were investigated. Specifically, it shows how the necessary requirements for the 3D softproof can be implemented practically and with available tools. short version 10.03.2021 pdf 4 MB
11.004 - Improving the printability and legibility of 1D and 2D codes in inkjet printing Possibilities for improving the readability of 1D barcodes and 2D matrix codes were investigated with regard to highspeed inkjet printing. short version 29.09.2020 pdf 3 MB
32.173L - Integration of high-speed inkjet into conventional offset production environments When evaluating the colour accuracy in relation to the supplied proof print, the average ΔE00 colour difference for all patches of the media wedge and the colour gamut volume showed the best correlations. Relationships calculated by means of regression analysis allowed acceptance thresholds to be set for each product category. For colour differences these are generally relatively high whilst for the colour gamut volumes they are low. long version 09.04.2020 pdf 15 MB
10.059 - Consistent Colour Appearance - Devolopment of a method for evaluating colour reproductions via different output chann Consistent Colour Appearance (CCA) is a new colour evaluation method. The developed CCA metric counts the number of overstepped colour names and provides a measure of the visual consistency between two colours (or pictures). A free online tool allows a quick testing of this method. short version 28.11.2019 pdf 5 MB

Most downloaded

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
Fogra Research Programme 2022 All current and planned research projects 2022 at a glance. 2022 01.01.2022 pdf 4 MB

By industry

Prepress technology

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
13.003 - Process standardisation for ECG printing Within the scope of this research project, investigations were carried out and tools were created to support professional colour communication, data preparation, data exchange and colour characterisation in multicolour printing (ECG, Expanded Colour Gamut). short version 05.08.2021 pdf 3 MB
12.017 - Graphic 3D printing – colour accurate softproof for 3D objects produced in Polyjet and Multijet fusion processes In this project, the practical basics for the physically correct on-screen visualisation of 3D-printed objects were investigated. Specifically, it shows how the necessary requirements for the 3D softproof can be implemented practically and with available tools. short version 10.03.2021 pdf 4 MB
60.055 - Methods to compensate the differences between proofing and production stock Optical brightener agents (OBA) of typical printing substrates were subject for testing its influence on established graphic art processes such as colour measurement, proof creation, image appraisal and light fastness. short version 28.08.2014 pdf 2 MB
60.054 - Evaluation of modern colour difference equations Modern colour difference metrics (colour difference equations) are evaluated with a view to a better, i.e. perceptual uniform, assessment of colour differences for typical graphic arts samples. short version 18.11.2020 pdf 481 KB
10.056 - Criteria for evaluating the colour accuracy of softproofs in dailiy production This report addresses the accuracy of softproofing. The aim was to suggest a concept for a colour reliable softproof. To get an overview of the Status Quo measurements of 1246 certified contract proofs where compared to measurements of 23 certified softproofing systems. short version 25.09.2014 pdf 2 MB
10.059 - Consistent Colour Appearance - Devolopment of a method for evaluating colour reproductions via different output chann Consistent Colour Appearance (CCA) is a new colour evaluation method. The developed CCA metric counts the number of overstepped colour names and provides a measure of the visual consistency between two colours (or pictures). A free online tool allows a quick testing of this method. short version 28.11.2019 pdf 5 MB
10.057 - Standardization concept for colorimetrically motivated data preparation and reproduction in the Print Media Industry This work introduces a new evaluation method for the reproduction of colour. It is called “Common Colour Appearance” and determines the colorimetrical consistency between several different reproductions of the same reference. short version 15.01.2016 pdf 4 MB

Offset printing

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
72.007 - Research into drying and blocking tendency of dispersion coated offset prints In this research project tests were carried out on dispersion lacquers, inks and papers as well as on dispersion coated prints, to identify the correlations between respective material properties and blocking tendency of offset prints. A connection exists between the polymer components of the dispersion coating and its blocking tendency. short version 16.08.2010 pdf 957 KB
67.010 - Assessment of new organoleptic analysis methods for package prints in the food sector Eleven print runs from the packaging sector were investigated - most of them food packages. The test methods used were based on DIN EN 1230-1, DIN EN 1230-2, DIN 10955 and DIN 55534. In addition, an olfactometer was used to do tests involving both static (discontinuous) and dynamic (continuous) gas dilution. short version 17.10.2011 pdf 944 KB
60.055 - Methods to compensate the differences between proofing and production stock In this project optical brightener agents (OBA) of typical printing substrates were subject for testing its influence on established graphic art processes such as colour measurement, proof creation, image appraisal and light fastness. First, a method to assess the UV amount of practical light sources has been developed. It is based on the visual impact of a typical OBA material. Here the OBAeffect only occurs when the OBA in the substrate is excited by the incoming light. Second, two measures of identifying the OBA amount have been evaluated namely ΔB and ΔCIEb*. short version 25.08.2014 pdf 2 MB
42.023 - Ghosting in sheet-fed offset printing: Substrate influences, kinetics and analytical characterization The work described in this report leads to a deeper understanding of substrate influences on chemical ghosting phenomena caused by printing inks in sheet-fed offset printing. The suitability and informative value of a laboratory method for forecasting the chemical ghosting behaviour of uncoated papers, films and synthetic papers as well as chromatic printing inks were tested. New ghosting phenomena were described, and the reproducibility of classic ghosting effects over longer periods was characterized. short version 15.04.2014 pdf 2 MB
32.162 - Properties of different colour sequences in sheet-fed offset and continuous forms printing Two-colour test prints were used to determine the gravimetric ink acceptance under various printing conditions and for different colour sequences. As a whole, the results did not agree well with those of the commonly used ink acceptance formulas based on density values. We have therefore developed a calculation formula for the colorimetric ink acceptance that describes the capacity of a printing ink to maximally shift the hue angle in its direction when being printed on an existing ink layer. short version 25.10.2021 pdf 1 MB
32.158 - Fundamentals for the standardization of spot colours in offset printing This report represents an appraisal of spot colours (basic colours of popular colour guides) in the area of sheet-fed offset printing using conventional inks. A broad distribution in case of all tested ink characteristics (colour coordinates, layer thickness, dot gain behaviour) is observed between different manufacuturers on the one hand and between the spot colours on the other. short version 08.07.2010 pdf 514 KB
32.154 - Material influences on ghosting in web offset printing The influences of printing ink, paper, damping solution, fountain feed and blanket were investigated in this project, using 8 cyan printing inks, 6 papers, 12 damping solutions and 11 blankets. All these material groups were found to have significant influences. short version 26.11.2012 pdf 1 MB
32.152 - Influence of varnish on the colour appearance of offset printed paper and paperboard The research project has led to a laboratory characterization method for the gloss of varnishes, introducing a so-called gloss index. ... short version 29.08.2011 pdf 2 MB
32.173L - Integration of high-speed inkjet into conventional offset production environments When evaluating the colour accuracy in relation to the supplied proof print, the average ΔE00 colour difference for all patches of the media wedge and the colour gamut volume showed the best correlations. Relationships calculated by means of regression analysis allowed acceptance thresholds to be set for each product category. For colour differences these are generally relatively high whilst for the colour gamut volumes they are low. long version 09.04.2020 pdf 15 MB
42.028 - Influence of paper properties on solid densities and tone value increases in sheet-fed offset printing Important findings --Oil absorption and mileage are important characteristic values that should be incorporated into future substrate specifications. Suitable procedures for the reproducible determination of mileage have yet to be established. --The mileage can be used to pre-set the press for the substrate in question. To do so, the ink being used needs to be calibrated just once. --The mileage of substrates can be increased for the specified gloss by increasing the pore volume and reducing the oil absorption. --By checking gloss, oil absorption and mileage at the outset it is possible to predict whether a change of substrate might lead to significant changes in tone value increase. --The lower the mileage, the higher the tone value increases for a given solid density, all other material properties being equal. short version 21.03.2019 pdf 954 KB

Digital printing

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
12.017 - Graphic 3D printing – colour accurate softproof for 3D objects produced in Polyjet and Multijet fusion processes In this project, the practical basics for the physically correct on-screen visualisation of 3D-printed objects were investigated. Specifically, it shows how the necessary requirements for the 3D softproof can be implemented practically and with available tools. short version 10.03.2021 pdf 4 MB
30.033 - Characteristic features of digital production printing with regard to objective judgement of quality The research project investigated the achievable colour gamut, the reproducible tonal range, the variations over the format and the print run, the image register and the positioning accuracy of the printed image in digital production printing. A representative selection of electrophotographic sheet-fed presses and two inkjet systems in small and medium format were included. short version 15.05.2014 pdf 2 MB
11.004 - Improving the printability and legibility of 1D and 2D codes in inkjet printing Possibilities for improving the readability of 1D barcodes and 2D matrix codes were investigated with regard to highspeed inkjet printing. short version 29.09.2020 pdf 3 MB
32.173L - Integration of high-speed inkjet into conventional offset production environments When evaluating the colour accuracy in relation to the supplied proof print, the average ΔE00 colour difference for all patches of the media wedge and the colour gamut volume showed the best correlations. Relationships calculated by means of regression analysis allowed acceptance thresholds to be set for each product category. For colour differences these are generally relatively high whilst for the colour gamut volumes they are low. long version 09.04.2020 pdf 15 MB
10.059 - Consistent Colour Appearance - Devolopment of a method for evaluating colour reproductions via different output chann Consistent Colour Appearance (CCA) is a new colour evaluation method. The developed CCA metric counts the number of overstepped colour names and provides a measure of the visual consistency between two colours (or pictures). A free online tool allows a quick testing of this method. short version 28.11.2019 pdf 5 MB

Packaging & Print finishing

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
70.004 - Factors that influence the pull test within the context of its further development into an optimized testing method suitable for standardization The project was intended to create the basis for the envisaged standardization of the pull test method. The latter may be realized jointly with the ISO/TC 130 Working Group 12 Postpress established in 2010 for standardization projects in the field of print finishing. The members of WG 12 have already included a general version of the pull test in their draft standard, but without mentioning a concrete test procedure or device. short version 27.08.2013 pdf 3 MB
71.012 - Evaluation of the coating strength of printing papers for print finishing Important findings --Coated art papers are prone to fold coating cracking but there can be considerable differences. --Conspicuous fold coating cracking can arise with grammages as low as 115 g/m². --There can be marked differences in fold coating cracking between paper grades from one manufacturer and between grammages of a single paper grade. --There is a statistical correlation between fold coating cracking and the following characteristics: paper surface (glossy, satin/silk, matt), fold direction (parallel or at right angles to the paper grain), the coating percentage of the paper. --The positive effect of creasing on fold coating cracking was largely confirmed. --There are no correlations between the newly developed and existing paper tests, which means that the new procedures are necessary for fold coating cracking. short version 25.04.2019 pdf 4 MB
70.005 - Ink cohesion phenomena and possibilities for their standardized evaluation This project involved specimens printed by every printing method being investigated by the prüfbau Quartant, IGT RT 4, Danilee Sutherland 2000 and James Heal Midi-Martindale abrasion testers. 60 sheet-fed offset printed specimens formed the focus of the investigation. short version 31.05.2017 pdf 10 MB
50.039 - Influences on the appearance of metallic effects in printing Practical hints Individual visual preferences for metallic effects differ from each other. Visual differentiation is most reliable in the vicinity of and at the angle of reflection. Currently, it doesn’t make sense to use colour measurements of printed products made with multi-angle colour measurement devices from the motor vehicle industry because the measurements are not made at the angle of reflection. Quality requirements for metallic effects should not currently be developed on the basis of colour measurements made with multi-angle colour colour measurement devices from the motor vehicle industry. An extensive sample book with metallic prints from this project may be viewed at Fogra. short version 13.10.2015 pdf 4 MB

Materials & Environment

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
45.001 - Deinking of Inkjet Prints Several paper industry representatives have expressed concerns that structural changes in the print sector could lead to future problems in the recycling loops of paper mills. Reason for this is the decrease in production volumes of gravure, newspaper and heatset offset printing in recent years combined with increasing volumes of the digital print methods electrophotography and inkjet. There are clear signs that the market shares of digital print products will continue to grow. Within the digital segment, inkjet printing can be expected to be used preferably for high print runs for economic reasons. Because very little data is available about the deinking behaviour of inkjet prints, the present study will take stock of the situation by means of science-based methods. From the results of their analyses, the authors derive new ways how to optimally integrate digital print products in the recycling cycle. short version 14.12.2012 pdf 7 MB
42.027 - Development of the ISO 2846-1 in support of the standardization concept for offset printing In order to achieve the desired appearance for a finished printed product it is essential to adhere to precisely defined interfaces between data preparation in prepress and the production run. By doing so it is possible to guarantee a common appearance regardless of the production site. It is also possible to produce a so-called contract proof prior to the actual printing process that simulates the colour achieved by the production run. short version 27.02.2017 pdf 4 MB

Security applications

TitleDescription/abstractVersionDateFile typeFile sizeDownload
80.001 - Influences on the reliability of RFID systems - additional test methods A standard test setup was implemented for testing RFID systems. USB hubs with their own power supply were used to eliminate the influence of power fluctuations in USB connections on the magnetic AC field of an RFID reader. short version 25.10.2010 pdf 842 KB
80.008 - Basics of graphic standardization for the production of plastic cards This report is concerned with colour measurement in the identity card sector and offers proposals for colour simulation. short version 27.07.2018 pdf 2 MB
81.001 - Detection methods for premature spontaneous rupture in printed multi-layer plastic cards ID cards are exposed to a variety of loads during use. Whether or not a card ceases to function prematurely depends on the specific load case and condition of the plastic material. In the course of time ageing mechanisms lead to changes in the properties of plastic materials. The study has shown that a very frequently occurring load case - storage in a purse - is particularly critical in this respect. long version 26.05.2016 pdf 28 MB
80.004 - Colour measurement of multi-layer plastic cards Useful tips --Offset prints on plastic films can be made by means of printing inks according to ISO 2846-1 as specified in ISO 12647-2:2013 CD 1. --New colour targets must be defined for prints made with nonfading inks. --Transparently laminated prints should be measured by means of 45/0 colorimeters having a large aperture (>> 4 mm). --The great tone value increase of halftone patches on laminated print products results from multiple reflections within the laminate layer. --Micrographs show the „discolouration“ of substrate white caused by these multiple reflections. --The colour spaces of laminated sheet-fed offset prints made with nonfading inks on different substrate/laminate combinations are very similar and can thus be standardized. short version 28.05.2015 pdf 3 MB