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In this image three different prints of a buddha statue are shown. The left statue is the biggest print in size and the original one. The middle and right statues are of smaller size. In the middle statue color appears quite different compared to the original statue. It was printed with the printer standards. In the right statue color is very similar to the original. This is because this print was adjusted in order to appear the same also in smaller scale and takes light transport into account.

3D Softproof for an accurate simulation of volumetric light transport effects and geometric errors in 3D prints

Short name: 3D-FarbSim

Fogra no. 13.007
Project leader: Andreas Kraushaar
Partner: P. Urban (IGD Darmstadt), A. Kienle (ILM)
Funding: BMWK (IGF) via AiF


Timescale: 01.08.2022 - 31.07.2024

Objective and relevance

With the goal of improving the design and product development process of graphic 3D printing objects, this follow-on project (from FarbMod 3D) will develop and validate two renderers that build on each other. This will be done with respect to the physical and perceptually accurate simulation of the visual appearance. These are, on the one hand, a device-independent renderer for the simulation of the "target design" and, on the other hand, a device-specific renderer for the simulation of the final 3D print, both of which take physically accurate account of volume light scattering even for optically thin materials.

This is based on the hypothesis that the deep-learning approaches used to estimate the optical parameters required for physically precise rendering will allow volumetric rendering that is sufficiently fast for decision-making and quality control on current computer hardware. The high quality of the intrinsic and phenomenological characterizations and models developed in the previous project required elaborate laboratory setups. It is hypothesized that modern methods of deep-learning based inverse rendering will enable a comparable quality with much simpler and lower characterization effort.

Andreas Kraushaar

Prepress Technology

+49 89 431 82 - 335

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Solution steps

The goal of this project is to enable 3D visualization tool providers to offer solutions for both quality control and decision-making that lead to avoiding high costs, reducing environmental impact, and promoting customer satisfaction. To achieve this goal, key technical challenges will be overcome in three main areas:

  1. Simulation (correct translucency representation already in the design process)
  2. Parameterization (simplification of material characterization)
  3. 3D color communication (development of a 3D printing exchange color space).

In point 1. Simulation, the renderer developed by the ILM in the previous project FarbMod 3D is supplemented by a correct simulation of translucency.

The essence of the second point is the simplification of the optical material characterizations developed in the predecessor project.

The third focus includes two main goals. On the one hand, a 3D printing exchange color space is to be developed, which will significantly improve 3D product development. Secondly, the developed methods are to be actively communicated to the industry.

This figure shows tne project outline. It is devided in three major steps. In step one a renderer is developed, which takes translucency with the help of an alpha parameter into accout. In a second step, possibilities of inverse rendering are explored. This have the potential of a high speed up in time, without loss of quality. In a thrid step an exchange color space will be developed. Further results of the project are made public available and will be integrated in ISO norms.

Targetted Results

The goal of this research project is to develop and validate two renderers that build on each other. One of the two is to produce a device-independent rendering that corresponds to the "target design". The second renderer, on the other hand, produces a device-dependent rendering of the final 3D print.

Furthermore, a new 3D printing exchange color space is being developed, which will be integrated into the iccMax framework.